Production manufacturing ready-made hemp-jute fabrics
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First the fibre classification and some general aspects are presented followed by a summary of the most widely applied natural fibres, involving quantities, harvesting methods and properties. A closer look will be given at the manufacturing of traditional natural fibre products as part of the rural industry.
Natural fibres, often referred to as vegetable fibres, are extracted from plants and are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant they are extracted from. When determining the properties of natural fibres, one has to keep in mind that one is dealing with natural products with properties that are strongly influenced by their growing environment.
Temperature, humidity, the composition of the soil and the air all effect the height of the plant, strength of its fibres, density, etc. Also the way the plants are harvested and processed results in a variation of properties. Cotton, see figure 3. Picking is highly labour-intensive, and on large scale is often carried out by machine. In many parts of the world, however, picking is carried out by hand. The picked cotton, so called 'cotton wool' is baled.
The seeds, dead leaves and other debris are removed by ginning. The clean cotton is baled again and is ready to be spun. In comparison with other natural fibres, Cotton is rather weak. Cotton is applied for the manufacturing of clothes, carpets, blankets, mobs and medical cotton wool.
Coconut fibre is obtained from the husk of the fruit of the coconut palm, see figure 3. The trees can grow up to 20 m, making harvesting a difficult job. People or trained monkeys climb the tree to pick the nuts, or a pole with an attached knife is used.
The fruits are dehusked with on a spike and after retting, the fibres are subtracted from the husk with beating and washing. The fibres are strong, light and easily withstand heat and salt water. After nine months of growth, the nuts are still green and contain white fibre, which can be used for the production of yarn, rope and fishing nets.
After twelve months of growth, the fibres are brown and can be used for brushes and mattresses. The fibres are extracted from the ribbon of the stem. When harvested the plants are cut near the ground with a sickle shaped knife.
The small fibres, 5 mm, are obtained by successively retting in water, see figure 3. Due to its short fibre length, jute is the weakest stem fibre, although it withstands rotting very easily.
It is used as packaging material bags , carpet backing, ropes, yarns and wall decoration. When ripe, the plants are pulled from the ground rather than cut, to avoid loss of fibre length from the stubble left in the field.
Pulling flax by hand is very laborious work. Flax dressing a process consisting of beating, shaking and hackling is used to extract the fibres from the stem, see figure 3.
The fibres are baled and ready to be spun. The elastic fibre degrades due to sunlight and burns when ignited. Flax has good heat conducting properties, is hard wearing and durable. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds tends to break the fibres. Flax is used for the production of linen and canvas, ropes and sacks. The Ramie plant 2 m high can easily grow in tropical regions. Ramie is usually harvested by hand. Retting is a more complex process due to a gummy substance surrounding the fibres, which has to be removed with chemicals.
This process is expensive and difficult to control, often resulting in a damaged fibre. Ramie is an expensive and durable fibre and can be dyed very easily, and is therefore more often used in decorative fabrics than as construction material.
Applications are curtains, wallpaper, sewing thread and furniture covers. The plant itself, see figure 3. The production is very labour intensive, especially the separation of the fibres from the bast. After mowing, the stems are bundled and dried.
The seeds are removed by threshing and the stems are dew or water retted, dried and hackled to remove the fibres. Breaking softens the fibres and the top and bottom bad parts are removed. A Hemp yarn is strong and has of all natural fibres the highest resistance against water, but it shouldn't be creased excessively to avoid breakage. The fibre is used for the production of rope, fishing nets, paper, sacks, fire hoses and textile.
The plants look like giant pineapples, see figure 3. The soft tissue is scraped from the fibres by hand or machine. The fibres are dried and brushes remove the remaining dirt, resulting in a clean fibre. Sisal produces sturdy and strong fibres that are very well resistant against moist and heat.
It is mainly used for ropes, mats, carpets and cement reinforcement. In table 3. With respect to the natural fibres one has to keep in mind that large variation in properties exist due to natural circumstances. In most developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, agriculture fulfils a major economical role which is confirmed by its large contribution to the Gross Domestic Product G. In the early days of development aid, this sector was particularly targeted.
Sustainable agricultural improvements were made in the field of erosion prevention, crop spraying, soil fertilisation, irrigation techniques and crop quality. With the aid received from western countries, agricultural societies were slowly turned into massive plantations providing not only themselves, but also western enterprises their required cheap natural resources or to produce mass export products.
During this transformation, a lot of labour was required to conduct all necessary agricultural changes. In the 80's, this transformation was completed, resulting in a large number of agricultural-"educated" unemployed, unqualified to work in modern urban industries. At this point the rural industry gained importance, providing work for those, who could work with indigenous agricultural based technology instead of with modern western technology.
Besides compensating for the general loss of jobs in agriculture, it also provides employment for "superfluous" farmers during the off-crop season. Since primitive technology is used, this sector is easy accessible. Manufacturing is concentrated in the food processing, textiles and garments, wood products figure 3.
Besides its direct employment, rural industry also generates agricultural employment in rural trade, transport and services. Another necessity of developing the rural industry becomes clear from a look into the future.
It is predicted that, even with a rapid growth of the urban industry, the rural society of many developing countries will still increase in the next 30 to 40 years. By the time this society ceases to grow in absolute terms, it is already a multiple of its present size. This forecast is alarming considering the fact that it suggests that a large number of people will become reliant upon traditional rural technologies, which is presently very unproductive. These enterprises employ over 20 personnel and manufacture mass products from natural resources for the export market.
Since the main reason for export is profit maximisation, output and quality are consequently high and the work is done year-round. Modern technology, often transferred from the west is used.
The high level of economic-decision-making involved, traditionally makes it a sector dominated by man. Within the rural industry MLSE provide the least employment, but is the most continue. Employing less than 20 personnel, the workforce is limited to family labour. SSCE manufacture cheap, low-quality products from local natural resources, providing the local market, which consists of poor customers. Applied technology is mainly traditional and indigenous.
SSCE originates from household industry to provide the own family with food and articles of use, traditionally the task of women. For this reason SSCE are an important source for employment of women.
Total number of employment fluctuates, but peaks in the off-crop season. In general this sector is larger regarding employment than MLSE. An interesting aspect is the development of so-called clusters, consisting of various SSCE. Although within these clusters competition exists between the various SSCE, some form of co-operation is present as well. One can think of collective growing and harvesting of the fields or the shared ownership of equipment.
Often management rules are developed, group size is known and enforced and sanctions work to insure compliance. Another form of co-operation within a cluster is the joint transport of products to the market. Due to the advantages of clustering, villages or whole regions tend to specialise in the manufacturing of a single product. In addition, the cheap labour involved in SSCE and the fact that due to improved infrastructure the market for SSCE has expanded towards urban areas, combined with the advantages of clustering, clarify their still thriving existence.
There are examples of SSCE supplying the export market by means of subcontract relations. Large disadvantage for SSCE is the fact that due to their small scale and non-continuous character they often don't qualify for government support. In figure 3.
After the production of the raw fibres, consisting of sowing, growing, harvesting and fibre extracting, they are further processed by the rural fibre industry. The first step often carried out by these enterprises is selecting the fibres.
Often the application of the fibre depends on its length. For example, if a fibre is too short it can't be spun into a yarn and application is limited to filling material. After selection, the long fibres are spun into yarns or ropes, which can be further processed into fabrics by weaving. The fibres loose filling fibre, yarns or fabrics are now ready to make products from. The output can be divided into 5 groups, presented in table 3.
Various examples are given in figures 3.
Many designers are experts in the form and functionality of the materials they use. This guide is intended to be a non-exhaustive listing of issues pertaining to sustainable fabrics that can be considered when choosing a fabric for a particular project. It is very important to note that the sustainability of fabrics can vary dramatically depending on how they are blended, dyed, transported, and processed. Tencel is a natural, man-made fibre which is also referred to as Lyocell.
China jute fabric for garment
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest. The Columbia history of the world states that the oldest relics of human industry are bits of Hemp fabric discovered in tombs dating back to approximately B. Hemp is called a fiber of hundred uses. The significance of Hemp to the economic and day to day lives of our ancestors is increasingly being recognized. It was important for textile, paper, rope and oil production. Indeed, Hemp was so important in England in the sixteenth century that King Henry VIII passed an act on parliament which fined farmers who failed to grow the crop.
What is Hemp Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
Amazing unused French hemp fabric. Hemp fabric is a type of textile that is made using fibers from the stalks of the Cannabis sativa plant. This plant has been recognized as a source of extraordinarily tensile and durable textile fibers for millennia, but the psychoactive qualities of Cannabis sativa have recently made it harder for farmers to produce this immensely beneficial crop. Over thousands of years, Cannabis sativa has been bred for two distinct purposes. On the one hand, many generations of cultivators of this plant have selectively bred it to be high in tetrahydrocannabinol THC and other psychoactive chemical constituents called cannabinoids.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. It is well known that every customer product has an impact on the environment. However an average consumer does not know which product has less or more impact than the other one.
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes.
These organic fibres are grown according to national organic standards with minimum or no use of toxic pesticides. Organic clothing is made up of materials that meet the organic agricultural standards. Organic fabrics are used for both, apparels and home textiles. Organic fabrics are eco-friendly, and are made up by treatment, which has a less impact on the environment. Organic fibres also use less water. Organic clothing is one such way where different manufacturers have started growing interest in Eco-fashion.
Jute - Why Is It A Sustainable Fibre?
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First the fibre classification and some general aspects are presented followed by a summary of the most widely applied natural fibres, involving quantities, harvesting methods and properties. A closer look will be given at the manufacturing of traditional natural fibre products as part of the rural industry. Natural fibres, often referred to as vegetable fibres, are extracted from plants and are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant they are extracted from.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Through the Supplycompass platform, brands get matched with a manufacturer, receive cost estimates, create tech packs, request samples and manage production all from one dashboard. For brands looking to launch more sustainable collections, one of the first things to consider when going through the design process is, what fabrics should you choose? This article focuses on more mainstream and readily available fabrics but to learn more about the latest innovations in sustainable textiles, read our article from the Future Fabric Expo. One of the most eco friendly options is to work with recycled, dead stock or upcycled fabrics.
Jute is an amazing fibre - it's incredibly sustainable, it's affordable, it's fast-drying and it's breathable. Let's take a closer look at exactly how this fibre is cultivated, the type of fabrics it makes and just why it's so eco-friendly. Jute comes from a vegetable, which is derived from the plant family Sparrmanniaceae. There are many varieties of jute, but almost all have the same properties: long, soft and shiny fibres.
Существовал только один разумный путь - выключить. Чатрукьян знал и то, что выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ можно двумя способами. Первый - с личного терминала коммандера, запертого в его кабинете, и он, конечно, исключался. Второй - с помощью ручного выключателя, расположенного в одном из ярусов под помещением шифровалки. Чатрукьян тяжело сглотнул. Он терпеть не мог эти ярусы.
Странным показалось только одно: об этой организации Беккер никогда прежде не слышал. Беккер позвонил одному из своих коллег: - Тебе что-нибудь известно об Агентстве национальной безопасности.
Это был не первый его звонок, но ответ оставался неизменным: - Ты имеешь в виду Совет национальной безопасности.