Production plant products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain. One such mysterious mark is the capital A found on a rare group of 18th-century British porcelains.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Zarin Porcelain Production Process
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- Pottery & Porcelain (C) - Encyclopedia Of Antiques
- HISTORY OF THE PORCELAIN
- Egyptian Faience: Technology and Production
- Tin-glazed pottery
- ITALIAN CERAMICS FROM MIDDLE AGE TO THE PRESENT
- Majolica, Faience, and Delftware
- A-Z of Ceramics
- Green Branches and Leaves Pottery Mark with 2 wavy lines 3NK and also CCCP 45-00 in (red)
Pottery & Porcelain (C) - Encyclopedia Of Antiques
The faience industry spread to Scandinavia mainly because of migratory workmen from Germany. A number of factories in Denmark , Norway , and Sweden during the 18th century made faience and creamware in the English manner. A distinctive Scandinavian production was that of bowls, made in the shape of a mitre, for a kind of punch called bishop. A typical Rococo concept to come from Marieberg is a vase standing at the top of a winding flight of steps.
Called a terrace vase it is often decorated with a rabbit or some other animal. In a factory at Copenhagen directed by Louis Fournier, a modeller from Vincennes and Chantilly, began the manufacture of true porcelain.
In the factory started work on an enormous service, originally intended for Catherine the Great , each piece of which was painted with a detailed picture of a Danish flower. Numerous skillfully made figures were also produced. The factory continues to produce fine porcelain. Delicate figures, some modelled by J. Sonnenschein from Ludwigsburg, and good-quality service ware were produced.
The factory of St. Petersburg was established about Some good original work was also done, and well-modelled figures of Russian peasants were made toward the end of the century. Even better figures were made at a factory in Moscow founded about by an Englishman named Francis Gardner.
Many factories at Moscow and elsewhere in Russia were established during the 19th century. There is little detailed information about the pottery made by the early European settlers in North America. Most of it was manufactured locally for local needs and from the clays that were nearest to hand. Since most of these contained iron in varying quantities, the pottery body burned to colours between buff and red. Until kilns capable of reaching a high temperature were constructed, manufacture was limited to earthenware.
Lead glazes were commonly used. Slips, both as a wash and as trailed decoration, were employed, and sgraffito decoration is known. Most of this pottery was made for practical rather than decorative purposes. A few potteries were established in the 17th century in Virginia , Massachusetts , and New Jersey ; and in eastern Pennsylvania , German settlers started work as early as making slip-painted and sgraffito earthenware in their own traditions.
He interested himself in the manufacture of porcelain and discovered the china clay and feldspathic rock necessary to its manufacture. By he appears to have made a successful true porcelain but failed to gain adequate financial assistance to develop it.
He therefore travelled to London , arriving in , and tried to sell the secret to the founders of the Bow factory in London. Their interest is certain, since the patent specification subsequently filed specifically mentions unaker , said to be the Cherokee name for china clay.
The Cherokee clay was shipped to England from time to time during the 18th century. Wedgwood imported several tons of it to use in the development of the jasper body. By potteries were being established on a sufficient scale to warrant an attempt to recruit workmen from Staffordshire.
The manufacture of tin-glazed ware began in Mexico soon after the Spanish Conquest in the first half of the 16th century. Spanish styles predominated, especially that of Talavera, but Chinese influence occurs in the 18th century.
The wares became a kind of inspired folk pottery in the 19th century. There is a fundamental difference between work done before the Industrial Revolution , the effect of which began to be felt in the pottery industry before , and that done subsequently. A student of the older wares, particularly those of the East, may find much of the later work difficult to accept because of its machine finish.
When an object is made by hand, it is never exactly the same as any other object, nor are the processes by which it has been formed and decorated disguised.
Consider, for example, a Song dynasty pot or a specimen of Japanese tea ceremony ware, whose imperfections of finish by factory standards are an integral part of their beauty and character, or the glaze of a Guan vase , which would lose its individuality if it possessed the smooth finish of a factory-made specimen. The technical precision of the 19th century, which made its products indistinguishable from one another, and the careful concealment of the means by which the end had been achieved were both unprecedented and deleterious.
Style and craftsmanship degenerated steadily in the factories. The situation was aggravated by the Great Exhibition of , which encouraged manufacturers throughout Europe to vie with each other in producing wares displaying virtuosity unhampered by questions of taste. For example, from as far afield as St. Those who bought such wares—as well as those who produced them—contributed to the degeneration of taste.
Before the advent of mass communications in the 20th century, new fashions originated in the wealthiest stratum of society which was usually also the most cultivated and filtered downward. Primarily interested in the arts as a means of display or as status symbols, they demanded an excess of intricate and expensive ornament. In East Asia the same process of degeneration began at the same time, at least partly as a result of the large number of export orders received.
That pernicious influence was kept at bay for awhile by the emperor Qianlong , who stigmatized the English as cultural barbarians, but became more pronounced in the 19th century. Similar tendencies may be seen in Japanese pottery after , when many factories worked almost entirely in styles demanded by their customers in the West. The Neoclassical style, which had been popular during the middle years of the 18th century, gradually lost its earlier simplicity.
In France the rise of Napoleon brought in its train the ostentatious Empire style copied, for the most part, from the decorative art of imperial Rome , which had much influence in England during the Regency period — It is noticeable on the porcelain vases made at such factories as Worcester, Derby, and Rockingham.
They were often decorated with well-painted topographical subjects that were no longer confined by frames but ran around the vase as a continuous landscape. Flower painting was often of excellent quality and was much influenced by the work of William Billingsley, a flower painter who worked at Derby toward the end of the 18th century.
At Worcester a factory established by Robert Chamberlain in produced porcelain decorated in a debased Japanese style. Because of their gaudy colour—iron red and underglaze blue coupled with lavish gilding—some Japanese patterns are called thunder-and-lightning patterns.
Similar Japanese patterns were being employed at Derby and at an older Worcester factory, although much of the work of the latter was more restrained. Some of the best painting at the old factory was executed by Thomas Baxter, who used marine shells as a subject.
It has been said, unfairly, that Josiah Wedgwood , by developing the factory system , was largely responsible for the degradation of the pottery art; Wedgwood wares have usually been in good taste even if they have not always been particularly adventurous. A far more-malign influence was that of John Rose of Coalport Salop. He was one of the first English exponents of the revived Rococo style , which appeared about , and made much porcelain encrusted with applied flowers.
Coalport flower painting, however, is very fine in quality and much in the style of Billingsley, who actually worked at the factory for some years. Josiah Spode II, who with his father invented the standard English bone china about , at first made good use of it. Some of his later wares, however, became increasingly pretentious copies of French styles, with highly coloured grounds, lavish gilding, and an excess of applied ornament.
About William T. Copeland became a partner in the firm, and in his son, William T. Copeland, Jr. In the company name became Spode, Ltd. The Derby tradition of fine painting was carried into the 19th century, during which time the flower designs became somewhat overblown, although landscapes remained on a high level. The Brewers were pupils of the topographical painter Paul Sandby.
Most of them were either sentimental subjects or quasi-erotic nudes, which were popular subjects of Victorian art. Parian ware had some success in America, where it was manufactured by Norton and Fenton. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page.
Scandinavia The faience industry spread to Scandinavia mainly because of migratory workmen from Germany. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
HISTORY OF THE PORCELAIN
Majolica, faience, and delftware are terms that describe glazed earthenware objects. Yet there are distinguishing factors among these products that are often misunderstood; this article provides a brief historical overview in an attempt to create some order out of the confusion. By the first half of the fifteenth century the cities of Brugge and Antwerp in the Southern Netherlands, now Belgium, were importing Italian earthenware through their trade connections with Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Majolica, as the pottery came to be known, is an earthenware product coated with a highly translucent lead glaze on the back, which is rendered an opaque white on the front by the addition of tin oxide. The Italian city of Faenza was a recognized center for earthenware production.
These wares are decorated with birds, butterflies and flowers and are well painted. Black basalt figures and vases and Etruscan ware, exceedingly well decorated, were also made at this factory, at a later period. Specimens marked Cambrian are rare. The productions of this factory are very beautiful. The soft paste has a delicate texture and is soft in appearance, and the hard paste made early in the 19th century is generally of excellent quality.
Egyptian Faience: Technology and Production
The earliest exhibits date back to the mid th century—the time when Baroque style prevailed. The Museum collection includes unique majolica items, manufactured at the first Russian plant, opened in Moscow in It belonged to Afanasy Kirillovich Grebenshchikov. Grebenshchikov works equaled to European products and were highly appreciated at that time. They were characterized by large sizes, yellowish-pink material, bluish-white enamel, painting on enamel, reminding of the 18 th century Chinese and West European faience and majolica. These articles were used in everyday life of higher society. It was called the Imperial Porcelain Manufactory. Vinogradov discovered the secret of porcelain and worked out the production technology.
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility! It is no accident that one of the most important methods of dating in archeology is based precisely on the classification of ceramic shards.
In ancient Egypt, objects created with faience were considered magical, filled with the undying shimmer of the sun, and imbued with the powers of rebirth. For Egyptians, the sculptures, vessels, jewelry, and ritual objects made of faience glimmered with the brilliance of eternity. While faience is made of common materials—quartz, alkaline salts, lime, and mineral-based colorants—it maintained important status among precious stones and metals. Faience may have been developed to simulate highly prized and rare semi-precious blue stones like turquoise.
ITALIAN CERAMICS FROM MIDDLE AGE TO THE PRESENT
Fine tin-glazed earthenware maiolica in traditional pattern, made in Faenza. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. A kiln capable of producing temperatures exceeding 1.
While our folk art and handicraft are gorgeous, the pottery is simply brilliant. Gzhel — Nowadays, the name Gzhel is used to describe artisan porcelain and pottery production and painting. Since ancient times the village of Gzhel and the entire Gzhel Oblast have been famous for their clay deposits; which have been actively mined since the 17th century. The extracted clay originally was used to manufacture pots for pharmaceutical products. It was later used to produce bricks, tiles for stoves, pottery, and toys, which were very popular in those days.
Majolica, Faience, and Delftware
Represent Royal Tichelaar Makkum describes the last 15 years of the long history of this Frisian earthenware factory and the Netherlands' oldest company. Under the impassioned leadership of director Jan Tichelaar, Royal Tichelaar Makkum is undergoing a number of decisive changes. By combining century-old craftsmanship with innovative projects by designers and architects, he has succeeded in broadening the company's activities to include contemporary products in the fields of architecture and design. The production of traditional earthenware, one of Holland's most famous national products, will continue alongside these new advancements. In this way, new products within both disciplines are being developed while traditional craftsmanship undergoes unique innovations. Represent Royal Tichelaar Makkum outlines the context which gave rise to these developments and gives a picture of the many inspiring products it has generated.
Inside the ovoid body jug is painted a scene representing a woman who rides a crawling bend man. In the Renaissance the majolica of Faenza definitively leaves the gothic and oriental decorative motifs. The five characters of the sculpture are grouped around a fountain with a column to keep the ink and an hexagonal basin tool post.
A-Z of Ceramics
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility!
Green Branches and Leaves Pottery Mark with 2 wavy lines 3NK and also CCCP 45-00 in (red)
The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. English generally uses various other terms for well-known sub-types of faience.
And School of Industrial Art. In William Young, in connection with his son, Wm. Young, Jr. For four years they made hardware porcelain, some china vases, pitchers of various kinds and a few dishes.
Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide  which is white, shiny and opaque see tin-glazing for the chemistry ; usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery , but very little used in East Asia. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is usually applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings. The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.
The porcelain of the Chinese Porcelain has been known as a product of the Chinese since the golden age of West-Chinese cultures to B. But Porcelain was not invented in China, but it was the result of a long process of development. Porcelain items reached Europe by way of laborious routes from the 13th century onwards by traders, explorers and globetrotters like Marco Polo.