Storage space technological equipment and apparatus for applying coatings
What should your employees know before moving, handling, and storing materials? What are the potential hazards for workers? What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually? What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically? What precautions must workers take to avoid storage hazards?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Surface Coating & Spray Painting Equipment Manufacturer
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Fluid Bed Coatings
This document can be used as a resource for planning upgrades to existing storage areas and for the design and operation of new facilities. The authors are grateful to staff from various ministries who have provided their input and valuable comments.
A special thanks to those individuals and organizations that provided their comments through the public review process on the Environmental Bill of Rights Registry. This document will aid the reader in assessing the necessary environmental protection measures for chemical and waste storage areas and protection measures for human health.
This document can be used as a resource during planning of upgrades to existing storage areas and for the design and operation of new facilities.
This guideline is intended to supplement, not replace existing codes and regulation. Owners of chemical and waste storage facilities should comply with all other applicable legislation and any existing certificates of approval. For detailed guidance on how to apply for a certificate of approval, consult the "approvals guidance manuals" prior to undertaking any new development or modifications to existing facilities.
The Ministry of the Environment may use this guideline to develop certificate of approval conditions or to promote environmental protection measures at facilities arising from inspections and in response to environmental incidents i. This guideline may be used by the Ministry of the Environment abatement staff as a reference and guide to best practices when inspecting chemical and waste storage areas at existing facilities. Officers will consider various risk factors in determining whether an existing chemical or waste storage facility should undertake improvement in order to conform to the guideline criteria.
The risk factors would include but would not necessarily be limited to the following:. The technical reviewer will compare the details of the application to the environmental protection measures contained within the guideline and may develop specific conditions within the certificate of approval to require that the site be designed and operated to conform to the guideline.
In preparing this document, the Ministry of the Environment recognizes that viable alternative storage solutions exist and they may be equivalent to or exceed the environmental protection measures contained within the guideline.
It should also be noted that this guideline is a "starting point" for evaluating and designing storage facilities for chemicals and waste. No single document is currently available that documents and interprets all requirements as required by both federal and provincial legislation and Municipal By-Laws. The Ministry of the Environment has attempted to provide a document that will assist its staff and facility owners and operators in the understanding of current best practices in chemical and waste storage.
As noted above, this document is a guide to common current best practices and is not all encompassing. The design and operation of all storage facilities requires a further understanding of legislative requirements, best practice measures and documents produced by professional associations. In particular, a review of Part 4 of the Fire Code would be an essential part of meeting any regulatory requirements associated with storage of flammable and combustible liquids.
Similarly, a review of the Building Code would also enable owners to ensure their structures associated with chemical and waste storage are constructed as per regulatory requirements. Through the adoption of environmentally protective procedures, adherence to regulatory requirements and installation of proper controls, the hazards associated with chemical and waste storage can be minimized and can reduce the likelihood of adverse impact to the environment.
The design of storage facilities and their respective safety measures and procedures falls within the definition of professional engineering, and is subject to the Professional Engineers Act. As stated earlier, the intent of this document is not to be an exhaustive collection of rules or a source for interpreting legislation.
Upon review of this document, it is essential that the appropriate legislation be referenced where required. In order to aid in this task, a summary of some pertinent legislation has been attached to this document and can be found in Appendix A.
In addition to these summaries, the internet links to Ontario statutes and regulations can be accessed at the Ontario E-laws website , or they can be acquired through Publications Ontario: or The following general principles should be applied to the assessment of environmental and public health protection measures at chemical and waste storage facilities:.
As a first line of defense, all storage facilities should be designed, fabricated and installed in such a manner that risk of loss e. Materials considered for the construction of storage facilities should be compatible with the safe long-term storage of the chemicals or wastes under consideration. The degree to which measures are taken to ensure the integrity of a storage facility should be dictated by the severity of the potential environmental, health and safety risk associated with the chemical or waste to be stored.
The following should be considered when evaluating existing facilities, installing new facilities or prior to initiating changes to existing facilities:. The following measures for worker protection should be considered at each chemical and waste storage facility, in accordance with requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act and regulations.
Emergency measures such as eye wash fountains, deluge showers, etc. Appropriate worker training in the proper use, care and maintenance should be provided to ensure effective use of required personal protective equipment. This training should include any fit testing of respiratory equipment if required. The purpose of the guideline is to help owners of storage facilities to assess the necessary environmental protection measures for chemical and waste storage areas.
As part of these measures, proper storage in tanks and transport of the contents in associated piping will assist in promoting the following:. In applying this guideline, consideration should be given to the potential for releases to enter the natural environment.
Depending on the location of the storage system, there are various sources of risk. Sewer systems, underground utilities, soil, surface water and groundwater are typical areas that may be affected if improper methods of above and underground storage are implemented.
Through a thorough assessment of the process, its requirements and location within the facility, applicable sections of this guideline can be adopted in accordance with the degree of risk. For example, indoor tanks remote from exterior doors and sewer drains may not require the same degree of secondary containment as an outdoor tank.
Similarly, the required level of monitoring may increase if an underground tank is the storage of choice. Unless there are compelling site-specific reasons to install underground storage tanks, use of these systems should be avoided. When considering the requirements for the design and manufacturing of the appropriate tank and its installation, it is important to refer to the applicable codes and standards available on this topic. The following list will assist owners in determining these requirements.
It should be noted that this is not an exhaustive list. For all applications of storage tanks and associated equipment storage tank system , the construction materials should be of sufficient structural strength and type to withstand normal operating conditions.
The owner of the system should ensure that the material type is compatible with the contents of the tanks and associated equipment. All storage tanks that rest on the ground should be constructed with a double bottom or underlain by a barrier that will not deteriorate.
Bottom contact with gravel, soil or spill absorbents around the base of the tank may increase the likelihood of bottom corrosion and should be avoided. The bottom of some tanks may be below ground level, thereby trapping moisture and increasing the rate of corrosion. If the tank is lined or internally coated, the coatings should be compatible with the substance stored. Using one or a combination of corrosion resistant materials such as non-metallic cladding or coatings, cathodic protection, or paints can also provide protection.
Design and installation of cathodic protection should be in accordance with specified codes and standards. Tank and piping connections of two different metals that create a corrosion inducing galvanic cell should be avoided.
Included in corrosion protection are exposed exterior surfaces of all aboveground tanks, piping and ancillary equipment. In general, overhead piping is preferable to underground piping. In applications where overhead piping is not possible, extra care and appropriate measures should be taken during the installation. Similar to tank requirements, piping and associated connectors should be of sufficient structural strength to withstand normal operating conditions and the material should be compatible with that of the waste or chemical that is transported.
Piping should be installed to eliminate or minimize physical damage by vehicles or equipment. Care should be taken in low-lying areas or in areas where there is significant pedestrian traffic to avoid any other occupational health and safety hazards. Overflow piping from tanks should be extended to near the floor of the containment area to ensure wastes or chemicals are directed into the designated area.
To avoid any fire, health or safety problem, the discharges from vents should not terminate in, near or underneath any building.
To keep operating personnel informed as to the existing conditions, instrumentation should be provided on all storage tanks and piping to and from the tanks. Controls such as alarms should be provided to give warning of conditions e. Back-up methods of detecting high levels in a tank are also recommended.
All remote or instrument-operated valves should be set to fail in the safest position. There are various methods of preventing unsafe conditions in the tank. Tank systems should be protected from over-pressurization, excessive vacuums or thermal excursions. Tank conditions may be caused by operator error, filling, emptying, atmospheric temperature changes, reactions, pumping, refrigeration, heating and fire exposure.
Devices that can assist in preventing these conditions are:. When determining the location of these devices, consideration should be made for the safety of the operating personnel, public health and safety and environmental protection.
Ancillary equipment should be located in such a way as to protect it from physical damage from moving vehicles or other facility operations.
If an aboveground storage tank will not be used for an extended period of time, considerations should be made to block piping or close valves to isolate the out-of- service tank. It is also recommended that piping be emptied and made vapour-free. Prior to re-use of a tank system, the tank and all associated piping should be inspected to ensure that they are in operable condition. It is recommended that old out-of-service storage tanks not be used for waste storage e.
Tanks that are set for permanent closure should be made vapour-free, as should the associated piping. As part of the decommissioning of a tank, measures should be implemented to remediate or manage any associated environmental contamination. Containment systems should be installed around all liquid chemical or waste storage containers to collect and contain a leak, spill or overfill from the tank, connections, vents or pressure relief devices.
An appropriate assessment should be completed on all storage areas to determine the likelihood that a spill or overflow condition would cause an adverse effect to the environment. In lower risk areas such as indoor applications, the facility itself can be used as containment, but for a higher-risk area such as an outdoor storage area, an appropriately sized containment area with adequate engineering controls may be required.
In considering the storage of more than one product within a common containment enclosure, whether by initial design or subsequent change in tank service, compatibility should be established to minimize the potential for violent reactions between two or more chemicals.
Containment systems should be designed such that the horizontal trajectory of a potential leak from a tank will be confined within the impoundment. As a guide, the perpendicular distance from the tank face to the top of the inside face of any containment should be a minimum of half the height of the tank above the top of the containment wall.
In cases involving very high risk of loss or damage, calculations should be made to determine the required distance. For areas with restricted space, a higher containment wall or shields placed in areas of risk should be considered. The secondary containment system should isolate and protect the tank from vehicular traffic, fire, and spills of incompatible materials that might occur in adjacent storage or work areas.
Containment areas may be emptied manually, by pumps or by ejectors. However, all should be manually activated and the condition of the accumulation should be examined before starting to be sure no contaminants will be discharged into the environment. Another option for removal would be disposal off-site using approved carriers and receivers. Examination of the material may include visual, odour or analytical tests, as applicable to the type of materials contained within the tank systems.
Accumulations from a secondary containment system should be treated or decontaminated in accordance with local requirements e. The contained volume of the impoundment within a containment system enclosing one or more tanks is given as the total enclosed volume, minus the volume up to the height of the containment of:. Containments should be sized so as to provide a minimum impoundment volume equal to the greater of:.
All containment areas should be structurally sound, impermeable and able to withstand chemical deterioration and structural stresses from internal and external causes. Soil conditions should be reviewed with regard to settling and drainage.
Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration. Samples of the first known paintings, made between 20, and 25, years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain.
Enter your login details below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Surface and Coatings Technology is an international archival journal publishing scientific papers on surface and interface engineering to modify and improve the surface properties of materials for protection in demanding contact conditions or aggressive environments, or for enhanced functional performance Surface and Coatings Technology is an international archival journal publishing scientific papers on surface and interface engineering to modify and improve the surface properties of materials for protection in demanding contact conditions or aggressive environments, or for enhanced functional performance.
Guidelines for environmental protection measures at chemical and waste storage facilities
We are working on developing new materials aiming to reduce weight and improve heat resistance and on developing shaped material processes such as casting, forging, and powder metallurgy. We are also advancing the development of technology for evaluating a material residual life and the understanding of a material deterioration mechanism by the aid of sophisticated analysis equipment. In the field of structural strength, structural analysis, and structural vibration technologies, we are working on the research and development of the evaluation of new material strength, new manufacturing processes, high-temperature strength prediction simulation, and also advancing the research and development of seismic resistance, seismic isolation, and vibration control technologies for supporting safety and security. We are contributing to increasing the efficiency of, improving the reliability of, and reducing the environmental loads of turbochargers, industrial compressors, aero-engines, gas turbines, diesel engines, gas engines, and so on using advanced numerical analysis technology, element test and measurement technology. We are also focusing on developing next-generation energy technology including hydrogen and renewable energies. We are working on the research and development of a computational engineering method for performing efficient computation while faithfully reproducing a physical phenomenon on a computer, the latest optimization method, data mining based on machine learning, and a mathematical scientific method including mathematical modeling. We provide a new joining process and new material welding technology to respond to the diversification of products and the adding of value to products. We also employ leading-edge measurement and observation technologies and evaluation methods even for conventional arc welding, and contribute to improving product quality and reliability using an autonomous process. ICT is indispensable for products and services of the IHI group as well as for the sophistication of manufacturing. We analyze a lot of operating data on production equipment and products delivered to customers in accordance with our uniquely developed algorithm to provide new value to customers.
Challenges for Electronic Circuits in Space Applications
This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content. Full access requires DieselNet subscription. Please log in to view the complete version of this paper. Modern emission control catalysts utilize monolithic flow-through supports coated with high surface area inorganic oxides and, in most cases, precious metals. After the method of its application, the refractory oxide layer is called the washcoat.
ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards.
Catalytic Coating & Materials
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer monolayer to several micrometers in thickness. The controlled synthesis of materials as thin films a process referred to as deposition is a fundamental step in many applications. A familiar example is the household mirror , which typically has a thin metal coating on the back of a sheet of glass to form a reflective interface.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Polyglass: Using the right spray equipment, hose and spray gun for roof coatings application
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Paint shop & Application technology
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Handbook of Thermal Spray Technology. This reference covers principles, processes, types of coatings, applications, performance, and testing and analysis of thermal spray technology. It will serve as an introduction and guide for those new to thermal spray, and as a reference for specifiers and users of thermal spray coatings and thermal spray experts.
An alternative approach to pan coatings that provides the mixing and drying characteristics required by the film coating process is to use fluid bed technology. Fluid bed technology helps in achieving fast and uniform coating using air to mix, coat and dry the substrate at the same time. This technology originated from fluid bed dryers used for wet powder material drying operation.
Surface and Coatings Technology
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NCBI Bookshelf. Trained laboratory personnel must understand how chemical laboratory facilities operate. Given the chance, they should provide input to the laboratory designers to ensure that the facilities meet the needs of the functions of the laboratory. Laboratory personnel need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the ventilation systems, environmental controls, laboratory chemical hoods, and other exhaust devices associated with such equipment and how to use them properly. To ensure safety and efficiency, the experimental work should be viewed in the context of the entire laboratory and its facilities.
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