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Warehouse units yarn produced by the flax industry

Warehouse units yarn produced by the flax industry

Yarn is a strand composed of fibres, filaments individual fibres of extreme length , or other materials, either natural or man-made, suitable for use in the construction of interlaced fabrics, such as woven or knitted types. The strand may consist of a number of fibres twisted together; a number of filaments grouped together but not twisted; a number of filaments twisted together; a single filament, called a monofilament, either with or without twist; or one or more strips made by dividing a sheet of material, such as paper or metal foil, and either twisted or untwisted. The properties of the yarn employed greatly influence the appearance, texture, and performance of the completed fabric. Fibres are units of matter having length at least times their diameter or width. Fibres suitable for textile use possess adequate length, fineness, strength, and flexibility for yarn formation and fabric construction and for withstanding the intended use of the completed fabric.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Hemp fiber processing

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What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where

Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates. Unlike cotton, which tends to retain moisture for a significant period of time, linen dries quickly, which helps reduce heat retention in overly warm conditions.

Manufacturing linen, however, is much more time and resource-intensive than making cotton, which has led to a steady reduction in popularity of this fabric that began with the invention of the cotton gin. Nevertheless, the unique desirable attributes of linen have prevented the total cessation of global production of this textile, and certain countries, such as China, continue to make linen in reasonably large quantities.

While evidence is scant from prehistoric times, it appears that Neolithic peoples in Europe were making textiles from linen as long as 36, years ago.

Therefore, linen is one of the longest-produced textiles, and its history may stretch back even farther than the most ancient evidence that modern archaeology has uncovered.

While the use of linen for garments in Mesopotamia was mainly reserved for the ruling class, the use of linen in Ancient Egypt was much more widespread. Since linen is naturally white, this fabric was an obvious choice, and its breathability and lack of moisture retention rapidly caused it to become the most popular and valuable textile in Egypt.

In fact, the Ancient Egyptians sometimes used linen as a bonafide type of currency. This fabric was also used to make the burial shrouds and wrappings for mummies.

The Ancient Greeks used linen to make garments and homewares, and the Phoenicians later introduced linen production to Western Europe. However, historical records suggest that there was no effort on behalf of European powers to regulate flax production among farming communities until the 12th century AD.

These days, linen is primarily a niche product that remains in production to manufacture a handful of textile products. Despite its rich history, linen is no longer in vogue due to the laborious and time-intensive processes used to make this fabric. Ironically, production difficulties originally disincentivized linen production thousands of years ago; while the challenges facing line producers today are quite different than they were in antiquity, this fabric remains finicky and expensive to produce.

The constituent material for linen fabric is the cellulose fiber found in the stems of linen plants. Like the stalks of many similar plants, linen stalks consist of a woody, reedy interior section and a fibrous, stringy exterior section.

To prepare for linen production, manufacturers of this fiber start by separating flax fibers from the woody interior of flax stems. Traditionally, this step has been accomplished by soaking raw flax stalks, but these days, manufacturers may use chemicals to achieve the same effect. Before flax fibers are spun into yarn, these chemicals are washed away, but residual toxic substances may remain on chemically-separated flax fiber.

Flax plants are ready for harvesting after about days of growth. Since flax plants do not tolerate heat, they must be planted in the cooler part of the year to avoid crop death. These days, flax seeds are usually sown with machines. Once flax stems are yellow and their seeds are brown, these plants are ready to be harvested. After flax stalks are harvested, they are processed through a machine that removes leaves and seeds.

This process is called retting, and unless it is expertly accomplished, the delicate flax fibers used for textile production could be damaged. Next, the decomposed stalks are broken up, which separates the unusable outer fibers of flax stalks from their usable inner fibers. To accomplish this step, the flax stalks are sent through rollers that crush them, and then rotating paddles remove the outer fibers from the stalks.

Now that the inner fibers are separated from the other fibers, they can be combed into thin strands. Once the fibers have been combed, they will be ready for spinning. Spinning of flax yarn used to be accomplished with a foot-powered flax wheel, but these days, flax producers use industrial machines for this process. To spin flax fibers, these short, combed fibers are connected with devices called spreaders, and the resulting strings, called rovings, are then ready to be spun.

After being spun on a spinning frame, the resulting yarn is reeled onto a bobbin. Finally, flax manufacturers dry the finished yarn and reel it onto bobbins. The yarn is then ready to be dyed, treated, and made into apparel, homewares, or other types of textile products.

From Ancient Egypt to Renaissance Ireland, many cultures used linen as their predominant source of apparel and homeware fiber. These days, linen is used for many of the same purposes that it was used historically, but this fiber makes up a drastically smaller percentage of the global textile market.

Additionally, many of the original applications of linen, such as shirts and pants, have largely been replaced with cotton.

In hot climates, however, linen is still used to produce everyday clothing in large quantities. Manufacturers can use linen to make practically anything commonly made from cotton or wool. For instance, this fabric can be used to make shirts, pants, dresses, skirts, jackets, blazers, vests, and a wide variety of other casual and formal wear.

Outside the realm of apparel, linen remains popular as a homeware material. One of the lone industrial applications of linen is in the production of canvases for painting.

As with most textiles, China is currently the largest producer of linen. However, the production of high-quality linen products remains an important part of the cultures of many European countries, and Ireland, Italy, and Belgium remain significant linen producers.

Linen used predominantly for homewares is also produced in the United States in relatively large quantities. At these prices, linen is one of the most expensive natural fibers in the world, but it is incontestable that linen remains highly in demand for specific niche applications. While all types of linen fabric are derived from processed and spun flax fiber, there are four main variations in weaving techniques that result in different types of linen fabric:.

Plain-woven linen is commonly used to make dish towels, cotton towels, and hand towels. Loosely-woven linen is highly absorbent, but it is the least-durable type of linen fabric. It is commonly used to make reusable diapers and sanitary napkins. Linen apparel is usually made from sheeting linen due to its untextured, soft surface and close weave. This type of linen usually has a higher thread count than other forms of linen fabric.

The main environmental concern regarding linen production is the release of chemicals used in the retting process into surrounding ecosystems. Most commonly, alkali or oxalic acid are used to separate flax fibers from the woody interior of flax stems, and while chemical retting of flax is undeniably faster and more efficient, both alkali and oxalic acid are toxic in relatively low concentrations.

Since flax is already such an expensive fiber, however, water retting simply compounds on this increased cost to make organic flax less accessible to most consumers.

In addition to concerns over the release of toxic chemicals into the environment, there may also be land use concerns over flax production. Specifically, most cultivation processes used to grow flax degrade soil, which can lead to soil erosion and expansion of agricultural lands into neighboring wilderness areas.

Furthermore, most textile production around the world is inhumane. The vast majority of textile workers are essentially slave laborers who are forced to endure horrific working conditions for insufficient pay.

As a result, the ability of linen workers to contribute to local economies is diminished, and stewardship of the land takes a backseat to the pressing day-to-day struggle to survive. Overall, however, linen is one of the least environmentally damaging textiles. Unlike synthetic textiles, natural fabrics like linen are biodegradable, which means that their constituent molecules reabsorb into the surrounding environment within a matter of years instead of centuries.

If linen is cultivated in accordance with proper stewardship of the land, it is not environmentally harmful.

To meet the global demand for linen products without incurring prohibitive overhead costs, however, the majority of linen producers choose to use inexpensive processes that may be environmentally damaging. A variety of linen fabric certifications are available to ensure that linen fibers are produced with sustainable and responsible means. This non-governmental organization NGO focuses specifically on textile products, which means it imposes stricter organic standards that focus specifically on the particulars of textile production.

About the author:. Boris Hodakel is the founder and CEO of Sewport - an online marketplace connecting brands and manufacturers, former founder of various clothing manufacturing services. He is passionate about e-commerce, marketing and production digitisation.

Connect with Boris on LinkedIn. Did you know we helped over brands find garment manufacturers and specialists and we can help you too Table of contents What Is Linen Fabric?

Planting 2. Growth 3. Harvesting 4. Fiber Separation 5. Breaking 6. Combing 7. Spinning 8. Reeling 9. Where Is Linen Fabric Produced? Damask linen 2. Plain-woven linen 3. Loosely-woven linen 4. Linen Fabric Certifications Available. About the author: Boris Hodakel is the founder and CEO of Sewport - an online marketplace connecting brands and manufacturers, former founder of various clothing manufacturing services. Start your project. You may also like. Just before you go. We can help you take the next step Learn more.

Learn more. Bed sheets, pillowcases, blankets, dish towels, bath towels, wallpaper, upholstery, skirts, shirts, suits, dresses, luggage, thread, aprons, bags, napkins, tablecloths, diapers.

What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where

Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book. Shop for Books on Google Play Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader.

This monograph provides the first comprehensive analysis of industrial development in Ireland and its impact on Irish society between Studies of Irish industrial history to date have been regionally focused or industry specific. The book addresses this problem by bringing together the economic and social dimensions of Irish industrial history during the Union between Ireland and Great Britain.

The components of flax Linum usitatissimum stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting dew retting , and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases.

Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution

Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven. Linen fabric is a popular choice for warm-weather clothing. It feels cool in the summer but appears crisp and fresh even in hot weather. Household linens truly made of linen become more supple and soft to the touch with use; thus, linen was once the bedsheet of choice. While the flax plant is not difficult to grow, it flourishes best in cool, humid climates and within moist, well-plowed soil. The process for separating the flax fibers from the plant's woody stock is laborious and painstaking and must be done in an area where labor is plentiful and relatively inexpensive. It is remarkable that while there is some mechanization to parts of the fiber preparation, some fiber preparation is still done by hand as it has been for centuries.

Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax

Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates. Unlike cotton, which tends to retain moisture for a significant period of time, linen dries quickly, which helps reduce heat retention in overly warm conditions. Manufacturing linen, however, is much more time and resource-intensive than making cotton, which has led to a steady reduction in popularity of this fabric that began with the invention of the cotton gin.

Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Account Options Sign in.

Click here to enable JavaScript in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. At Sintex Yarns, we work with unparalleled technology that can process this cotton into high-quality sustainable yarns. We have set up a one-of-a-kind plant not only in terms of capacity but also in terms of location and operational methods.

Yarn Conversion Calculator

The 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering LCE continues a long tradition of scientific meetings focusing on the exchange of industrial and academic knowledge and experiences in life cycle assessment, product development, sustainable manufacturing and end-of-life-management. Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing do not only involve products or services that are changed for a local market by simple substitution or the omitting of functions. Products and services need to be addressed that ensure a high standard of living everywhere. Resources required for manufacturing and use of such products are limited and not evenly distributed in the world.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Industrial Loom

The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn. The other natural fibres must first be straightened, made parallel by combing and then drawn into a continuous yarn by spinning.


It was in on the basis of R. The trade mark of the first commercial rayon carbon fiber was "Thornel". The same time similar technology appeared in the USSR. Our company started to manufacture carbon fibers more than 30 years ago: test-facility where were only several batch type furnaces. In the beginning of s large shop was erected to produce carbon fabrics for defense. Later it was reorganized to an independent company department and it was equipped with the state-of-the-art production line. Today we have the world largest rayon filament based carbon fiber capacity.

Dec 2, - Industrial Hemp Production: Cutting the Stalks If the yarns haven't been dyed beforehand, the fabric is dyed and stabilised by treating it.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Cotton, often referred as "White gold" has been in cultivation in India for more than five thousand years.

Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods

Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human activities. The oldest known textiles date back to about B. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving to create cloth.

Production of yarn

Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines. The main key drivers of the Industrial Revolution were textile manufacturing , iron founding , steam power , oil drilling, the discovery of electricity and its many industrial applications, the telegraph and many others. Railroads, steam boats, the telegraph and other innovations massively increased worker productivity and raised standards of living by greatly reducing time spent during travel, transportation and communications.

Did you know the very first pair of Levis were made of hemp?

Сьюзан знала, что без ТРАНСТЕКСТА агентство беспомощно перед современным электронным терроризмом. Она взглянула на работающий монитор. Он по-прежнему показывал время, превышающее пятнадцать часов. Даже если файл Танкадо будет прочитан прямо сейчас, это все равно будет означать, что АНБ идет ко дну.

Yarn Conversion Calculator

Водитель отказался его впустить. Машина была оплачена человеком в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, и он должен был его дождаться. Беккер оглянулся и, увидев, как Халохот бежит по залу аэропорта с пистолетом в руке, бросил взгляд на свою стоящую на тротуаре веспу. Я погиб. Халохот вырвался из вращающейся двери в тот момент, когда Беккер попытался завести мотоцикл.

Он ждал, когда зазвонит прямой телефон, но звонка все не. Кто-то постучал в дверь. - Войдите, - буркнул Нуматака.

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